Ls

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ls - List a directory's content

basic usage

ls

will the contents of the current directory in alphabetical order.

colors


ls is one of the most basic tools and will undoubtedly be the most commonly used. It sorts a directory alphabetically and prints them in the following colors:

  • a black or white entry, depending on your terminal settings, is a regular file
  • a dark blue entry is a directory, you can change to that directory with cd
  • a bright green entry is a symbolic link
  • a a purple entry is a hard link


to disable color formatting use

 ls --color=never


hidden files

ls, by default, does not show hidden files and directories. To enable the viewing of hidden folders and files you have several options.

 ls -a
ls -A



more listing information

ls only shows the file or directory name, to make it show more information use the following option.

 ls -l
  • the -l flag shows a lot of information on every file and folder.

The

ll

command does the same thing. For more information on a specific file, use the stat command.

sort by modification time

ls -t

output data size in human readable format

To output the data size in human readable format, e.g. kB, MB instead of bytes, which can be rather long.

ls -h

combine switches

You can combine switches, aka flags or options. For instance,

ls -lth

will display the contents in a descriptive format, with file sizes in human readable format, and sorted accorded to their modification time.

additional options

This is meant to be an introduction and does not cover all of the command's data. For more information read

ls --help

or the manpage

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