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      ls - list directory contents


      ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


      List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the  current directory by default).  Sort entries
alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

      Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

      -a, --all
do not hide entries starting with .

      -A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

print the author of each file

      -b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

use SIZE-byte blocks

      -B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

      -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of  last  modification  of  file  status
information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

      -C     list entries by columns

control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be ‘never’,
‘always’, or ‘auto’

      -d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

      -D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

      -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

      -F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l --time-style=full-iso

      -g     like -l, but do not list owner

      -G, --no-group
inhibit display of group information

      -h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

      --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

      -H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory

      --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

      -i, --inode
print index number of each file

      -I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

      -k     like --block-size=1K

      -l     use a long listing format

      -L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file
the link references rather than for the link itself

      -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

      -n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs

      -N, --literal
print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)

      -o     like -l, but do not list group information

      -p, --file-type
append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

      -q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)

      -Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c,

      -r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting

      -R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively

      -s, --size
print size of each file, in blocks

      -S     sort by file size

extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v
status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status;
use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT

             FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  FORMAT1
applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed
with ‘posix-’, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

      -t     sort by modification time

      -T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

      -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time  and  sort  by
name otherwise: sort by access time

      -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

      -v     sort by version

      -w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

      -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

      -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

      -1     list one file per line

      --help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

      SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K
1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

      By default, color is not used to distinguish types of  files.   That  is  equivalent  to
using --color=none. Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument is
equivalent to using --color=always. With --color=auto, color codes are output only if
standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).


      Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.


      Report bugs to <>.


      Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not
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